General Chemistry (CHEM 207) is a three-credit course that serves as an introduction to modern chemistry for students who have had a previous chemistry course either in high school or college. The course provides a basis for, and is a prerequisite for, advanced courses in chemistry, biochemistry and molecular biology. Successful completion of this course fulfills part of the General Studies requirement of Shepherd College.
The general topics covered include atomic and molecular structure, periodic properties of the elements, chemical bonding, stoichiometry, chemical reactivity, thermochemistry and the structure and properties of gases, liquids and solids. The history of the development of chemistry is interwoven through the presentation of the theory. The impact of chemistry on everyday life and on the environment is discussed whenever possible. A more detailed description of topics is given below.
This course, along with CHEM 207L, CHEM 209, and CHEM 209L fulfills the Shepherd University General Studies requirement for eight credits in the Life or Physical Sciences. Specifically this course addresses the following General Studies intended student outcomes:
2.3 Understand cause and effect relationships
2.4 Understand basic scientific concepts and methods
3.5 Utilize tools such as charts, graphs, and equations to represent functional relationships and explain their meaning.
Chemistry, A Molecular Approach, N. J. Tro, Prentice Hall, 1st ed. (2008)
ISBN-10: 013000659, ISBN-13: 978-013000650
MWF 11:10 - 12:00 (section 2)
MWF 2:10 - 3:00 (section 4)
MWF 10:10-11:00, MW 3:10-4:00, T 4:10-5:00, F 1:10 – 2:00 or by appointment
Office : Byrd Center 315 304-876-5430 firstname.lastname@example.org
web page: http://WEBPAGES.SHEPHERD.EDU/DDILELLA/
One year of high school chemistry and high school algebra. CHEM 207L should be taken concurrently.
TESTS, QUIZZES and EXAMS
There will be two fifty-minute term tests and a two-hour comprehensive final exam. The dates for the term tests are not finalized but will be announced at least one week in advance. The comprehensive final will be on December 7.
A quiz will be given in class every Friday unless an announcement is made to the contrary. There may also be some graded take-home quizzes. Makeup quizzes (with grading starting at 90%) may be taken for up to one week from the time the original quiz was returned. Term exams that are missed with a valid excuse may be made up during finals week. The only type of calculator allowed for tests are simple scientific calculators.
Simple scientific calculators may be used on tests and quizzes. Cell phones or electronic devices other than simple calculators may never be used on tests. The use of a cell phone during a test will result in zero for the test. Calculators may not be shared during tests. Sharing of calculators will result in a zero for the test for all involved.
Students are expected to attend all classes. Makeup exams will not be administered without a valid written excuse. All makeup exams will be during finals week.
Cheating in all its forms, including plagiarism and cheating on visual work, is considered an academic matter and will result in automatic dismissal from the course and will be recorded on the official transcript. Cell phones or any type of electronic device other than an approved calculator may never used in on tests.
The PowerPoint slides that will be used for the lecture will be available before each lecture. These are meant to be study guides but are not complete. Many examples given in lecture will not be in the slides. You may find it useful to print out the slides and bring them to class for making notes.
The textbook has several features to help you study chemistry. Each chapter includes a review section at the end that includes key terms, concepts, skill, equations and relationships. It is a good idea to browse this section before reading the chapter to get some idea of the key points. Once you have read the chapter, examine the review questions at the end of the chapter to see how well you understand the material.
Good problem solving skills are essential for success in this course. The only way to become proficient at problem solving is to work on problems. Each chapter contains several worked out example problems that you should examine carefully. Be sure to try the Practice problems that follow the examples to be sure that you understand the concepts. In addition to the problems in the chapter, several other problems from the end of the chapter are listed below. Make sure that you understand these problems. If you still feel unsure of the material after working on the assigned problems, work on others. The problems from the end of the chapter will not be collected or graded but the material will be on in-class quizzes and tests.
Working on problems with other students is a good way to maximize the benefit of the time spent on problem solving. However, be sure that all people working on a problem spend some time working alone. Compare results and discuss the problem after everyone has had time to try to solve it. Don’t look at the answer guide before making an honest effort to solve the problem. You have not necessarily mastered a problem just because you can follow the answer in the guide. Try the same problem the next day without looking at the answer and you may find that you don’t even remember how to start it.
The answers are given in the text for odd-numbered exercises. The optional solution guide gives more detailed solutions. Each even-numbered exercise is usually very similar to the preceding odd-numbered exercise.
If you have difficulty solving these exercises, get help as soon as possible either by seeing the instructor, a tutor or another student. Students can discuss the exercises during the instructor’s office hours. Tutors are generally available for this course. See the instructor if you do not know how to contact a tutor.
Term tests 50%
Comprehensive Final 25%
The Term Test score will be taken from the best 2 of 3 scores. If the grade on the final is higher than the grade of the lowest midterm, the final grade will replace the lowest Term score. Examples of questions from previous quizzes and tests will be available on SAKAI.
The final grade will be based on the following scale
A 89 % to 100 % C 65 % to 76+ %
B 77 % to 88+ % D 50 % to 64+ %
TOPICS, ORDER OF PRESENTATION, AND SUGGESTED PROBLEMS
Chapter 1 - Matter, Measurement, and Problem Solving
1.1 Atoms and Molecules, 1.2 The Scientific Approach to Knowledge, The nature of science, 1.3 The Classification of Matter: solid, liquid and gas: elements, compounds, and mixtures,1.4 Physical and Chemical Changes, physical and chemical properties, 1.5 Energy, 1.6 The Units of Measurement, prefix multipliers, derived units, 1.7 The Reliability of a Measurement, significant figures, significant figures in calculations, precision and accuracy, 1.8 Solving Chemical Problems, converting units, problem-solving strategy, Problems: 37,4155,59,61,65,69,71,75,77,83,87,89
Chapter 2 - Atoms and Elements
2.1 Imaging and Moving Individual Atoms, 2.2 Early Ideas about the Building Blocks of Matter, 2.3 Modern Atomic Theory and the Laws That Led to It, conservation of mass, Law of Definite Proportions, Law of Multiple Proportions, John Dalton and The Atomic Theory, 2.4 The Discovery of the Electron, Cathode Rays, Millikan’s oil drop experiment, 2.5 The Structure of The Atom, 2.6 Subatomic Particles: Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons in Atoms, Isotopes, Ions, 2.7 Finding Patterns: the periodic table, ions and the periodic table 2.8 Atomic Mass: 2.9 Molar Mass: The mole, converting between number of moles and number of atoms, converting between mass and amount (number of moles), Problems: 31, 39,41,43,49,51,53,55,59,65,67,69,71,79,81,83
Chapter 3 (3.1-3.6) - Molecules, Compounds and Chemical Equations
3.1 Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Water, 3.2 Chemical Bonds, 3.3 Representing Compounds: Chemical Formulas and Molecular Models , types of chemical formulas, molecular models, 3.4 An Atomic-Level Perspective of Elements and Compounds, 3.5 Ionic Compounds: Formulas and Names, Polyatomic Ions, 3.6 Molecular Compounds: Formulas and Names, Problems: 23,25,27,29, 33,35,37,39,41,43,45,49,51,
Chapter 7 - The Quantum-Mechanical Model of the Atom
7.1 Quantum Mechanics, 7.2 The Nature of Light, the wave nature of light, the electromagnetic spectrum, interference and diffraction, the particle nature of light, 7.3 Atomic Spectroscopy and the Bohr Model, 7.4 The Wave Nature of Matter: the de Broglie wavelength, the uncertainty principle, and probability, 7.5 Quantum Mechanics and the Atom, the hydrogen atom, atomic spectroscopy explained, 7.6 The Shapes of Atomic Orbitals, s, p, d, f orbitals, Problems: 39,43,57,59,63,65,67,
Chapter 8 - Periodic Properties of the Elements
8.1 Nerve Signal Transmission, 8.2 The Development of the Periodic Table, 8.3 Electron configurations, electron spin and the Pauli exclusion principle, sublevel energy splitting in multi-electron atoms, electron configurations for multi-electron atoms, 8.4 Electron Configurations, Valence Electrons, and The Periodic Table, orbital blocks in the periodic table, writing and electron configuration for an element from its position in the periodic table, the transition and inner transition elements, 8.5 The Explanatory Power of the Quantum-Mechanical Model, 8.6 Periodic Trends in the Size of Atoms, effective nuclear charge, atomic radii and the transition elements, 8.7 Ions: Electron Configurations, Magnetic Properties, Ionic Radii, and Ionization Energy, trends in first ionization energy, exceptions to trends in first ionization energy, trends in second and successive ionization energies, 8.8 Electron Affinities and Metallic Character, 8.9 Some Examples of Periodic Chemical Behavior: The Alkali Metals, The Halogens and The Noble Gases, Problems: 41,43,45,47,51,55,57,59,61,63,65,67,69,71,75,77,79
Chapter 9 – (9.1-9.6) Chemical Bonding I: Lewis Theory
9.1 Bonding Models and AIDS Drugs, 9.2 Types of Chemical Bonds, 9.3 Representing Valance Electrons with Dots, 9.4 Ionic Bonding: Lewis Structures and Lattice Energies, ionic bonding and electron transfer, lattice energy, trends in lattice energies: ion size, trends in lattice energies: ion charge, ionic bonding, 9.5 Covalent Bonding: Lewis Structure, Single Covalent Bonds, Double and Triple Covalent Bonds, 9.6 Electronegativity and Bond Polarity, dipole moment, 9.7 Lewis Structures of Molecular Compounds and Polyatomic Ions, 9.8 Resonance and Formal Charge, 9.9 Exceptions to the Octet Rule: Odd Electron Species, Incomplete Octets, and Expanded Octets, 9.10 Bond Energies and Bond Lengths, 9.11 Bonding in Metals: the electron sea model, Problems: 37,39,45,47,53,55,59,61,63,69,71,73
Chapter 10 - Chemical Bonding II: Molecular Shapes, Valance Bond Theory, and Molecular Orbital Theory
10.1 Artificial Sweeteners: Fooled by Molecular Shape, 10.2 VSPER Theory: The Five Basic Shapes 10.3 VSPER Theory: The Effect of Lone Pairs, 10.4 VSPER Theory: Predicting Molecular Geometries, Predicting the Shapes of Larger Molecules, 10.5 Molecular Shape and Polarity, 10.6 Valence Bond Theory: Orbital Overlap as a Chemical Bond, 10.7 Valence Bond Theory: Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals, sp2 hybridization and double bonds, sp hybridization and triple bonds, sp3d and sp3d2 hybridization, writing hybridization and bonding schemes, 10.8 Molecular Orbital Theory: Electron Delocalization, linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO), main ideas in applying LCAO-MO theory, period two homonuclear diatomic molecules, Problems:31,33,35,39,41,45,47,51,57
Chapter 3 (3.7-3.10) - Molecules, Compounds and Chemical Equations
3.7 Formula Mass and The Mole Concept for Compounds, 3.8 Composition of Compounds, Mass percent composition as a conversion factor, conversion factors from chemical formulas, 3.9 Determining a Chemical Formula from Experimental Data, 3.10 Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations, Programs: 57, 59,61,63,65,69,73,75,79,81,83,99
Chapter 4 - Chemical Quantities and Aqueous Reactions
4.1 Global Warming and the Combustion of Fossil Fuels, 4.2 Reaction Stoichiometry: mole-to-mole conversions, mass-to-mass conversions, 4.3 Limiting Reactant, Theoretical Yield, and Percent Yield 4.4 Solution Concentration and Solution Stoichiometry, molarity, solution dilution, solution Stoichiometry, 4.5 Types of Aqueous Solutions and Solubility, electrolyte and nonelectrolyte solutions, the solubility of ionic compounds, 4.8 Acid-Base Reactions, 4.9 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions, combustion reactions, Problems: 25,27,31,33,37,39, 41,43,49,51,53,55,57,61,63,67,71,83,85
Chapter 6 - Thermochemistry
6.1 Light the Furnace: The Nature of Energy and Its Transformations, the nature of energy, units of energy, 6.2 The First Law of Thermodynamics, internal energy, 6.3 Quantifying Heat and Work, heat, work: pressure-volume work, 6.4 Measuring E for Chemical Reactions, calorimetry, 6.5 Enthalpy, exothermic and endothermic processes: a molecular view, stoichiometry involving H: thermochemical equations, 6.6 Constant Pressure Calorimetry, 6.7 Relationships Involving Hrxn, 6.8 Enthalpies of Reaction from Standard Heats of Formation, standard states and standard enthalpy changes, 6.9 Energy Use and The Environment, environmental problems associated with fossil fuel use, chemistry and the environment: renewable energy, Problems: 31,33,35,39,43,45,47,55,59,63,67,69,71,77
TEST 2 - TBA
Chapter 5 - Gases
5.1 Water from Wells: Atmospheric Pressure at Work, 5.2 Pressure: The result of Molecular Collisions, pressure units, the manometer, 5.3 The Simple Gas Laws: Boyle’s Law, Charles’s Law and Avogadro’s Law, 5.4 The Ideal Gas Law, 5.5 Applications of the Ideal Gas Law: Molar Volume, Density and Molar Mass of a Gas, 5.6 Mixtures of Gases and Partial Pressures, 5.7 Gases in Chemical Reactions: Stoichiometry Revisited, 5.8 Kinetic Molecular Theory: A Model for Gases, temperature and molecular velocities, 5.9 Mean Free Path, Diffusion, and Effusion of Gases, 5.10 Real Gases: The Effects of Size and Intermolecular Forces, the effect of the finite volume of gas particles, the effect of intermolecular forces, van der Waal’s equation, 5.11 Chemistry of the Atmosphere: air pollution, ozone depletion, air pollution, Problems: 29,33,35,37,41,43,47,49,53,55,59,61,65,71,79,81,85,87
Chapter 11 - Liquids, Solids, and Intermolecular Forces (11.1-11.12)
11.1 Climbing Geckos and Intermolecular Forces, 11.2 Solids, Liquids, and Gases: A Molecular Comparison, phase changes, 11.3 Intermolecular Forces: The Forces that Hold Condensed Phases Together, Dispersion Force, Dipole-Dipole Force, Hydrogen Bonding, Ion-dipole Force, 11.4 Intermolecular Forces in Action: Surface Tension, Viscosity, and Capillary Action, 11.5 Vaporization and Vapor Pressure, energetics of vaporization, vapor pressure and dynamic equilibrium, temperature dependence of vapor pressure and boiling point, the critical point,11.6 Sublimation and Fusion, energetics of melting and freezing, 11.7 Heating Curve for Water,11.8 Phase Diagrams, triple and critical points, 11.9 Water: An Extraordinary Substance, 11.10 Crystalline Solids: Determining Their Structure by X-Ray Crystallography, 11.11 Crystalline Solids: Unit Cells and Basic Structures, simple cubic unit cell, close-packed structures, 11.12 Crystalline Solids: The Fundamental Types, molecular solids, ionic solids, atomic solids, Problems: 49,53,59,61,65,67,83,85,87
Wednesday Dec. 7, 12:00-2:00 (11:10 section)
Friday Dec. 9, 9:00-11:00 (2:10 section)