General Chemistry (CHEM 209) is a three-credit course that serves as an introduction to modern chemistry for students who have had a previous chemistry course either in high school or college.    The course is designed for science majors and provides a basis for, and is a prerequisite for, advanced courses in chemistry, biochemistry and molecular biology.  Successful completion of this course fulfills part of the General Studies requirement of Shepherd University.


The general topics covered include atomic and molecular structure, periodic properties of the elements, chemical bonding, stoichiometry, chemical reactivity, thermochemistry and the structure and properties of gases, liquids and solids.  The history of the development of chemistry is interwoven through the presentation of the theory.  The impact of chemistry on everyday life and on the environment is discussed whenever possible.  A more detailed description of topics is given below. 


This course, along with CHEM 209L, CHEM 207, and CHEM 207L will fulfill the Shepherd University General Studies requirement for eight credits in the Life or Physical Sciences. Specifically this course addresses the following General Studies intended student outcomes:

2.3 Understand cause and effect relationships

2.4 Understand basic scientific concepts and methods

3.5 Utilize tools such as charts, graphs, and equations to represent functional relationships and explain their meaning.




            Chemistry, A Molecular Approach, N. J. Tro, Prentice Hall, 1st ed. (2008)  ISBN-10:  013000659,




            MWF   11:10 - 12:00




        MWF 10-11, MWF 3-4 T 1-2          or by appointment        

        Byrd Center 315                304-876-5430      

        web page: http://WEBPAGES.SHEPHERD.EDU/DDILELLA/




            CHEM 207.   CHEM 209L should be taken concurrently.




            There will be four fifty-minute term tests and a two-hour comprehensive final exam.   A quiz will be given in class every Friday unless an announcement is made to the contrary.  There may also be some graded take-home quizzes.  Makeup quizzes (with grading starting at 90%) may be taken for up to one week from the time the original quiz was returned.   Makeup exams will not be administered without a valid written excuse.  Term tests that are missed with a valid excuse may be made up during finals week.  The only type of calculator allowed for tests are simple scientific calculators.  Cell phones may never be used as calculators on tests.




            Students are expected to attend all classes.  Makeup exams will not be administered  without a valid written excuse. 



            Cheating in all its forms, including plagiarism and cheating on visual work, is considered an academic matter and will result in automatic dismissal from the course and will be recorded on the official transcript.




            The textbook has several features to help you study chemistry.  Each chapter includes a review section at the end that includes key terms, concepts, skill, equations and relationships.  It is a good idea to browse this section before reading the chapter to get some idea of the key points.  Once you have read the chapter, examine the review questions at the end of the chapter to see how well you understand the material.          

            Good problem solving skills are essential for success in this course.  The only way to become proficient at problem solving is to work on problems.   Each chapter contains several worked out example problems that you should examine carefully.  Be sure to try the Practice problems that follow the examples to be sure that you understand the concepts.  In addition to the problems in the chapter, several other problems from the end of the chapter are listed below.   Make sure that you understand these problems.   If you still feel unsure of the material after working on the assigned problems, work on others.  The problems from the end of the chapter will not be collected or graded but the material will be on in-class quizzes and tests.

            Working on problems with other students is a good way to maximize the benefit of the time spent on problem solving.  However, be sure that all people working on a problem spend some time working alone.  Compare results and discuss the problem after everyone has had time to try to solve it.  Don’t look at the answer guide before making an honest effort to solve the problem.  You have not necessarily mastered a problem just because you can follow the answer in the guide.  Try the same problem the next day without looking at the answer and you may find that you don’t even remember how to start it.

            The answers are given in the text for odd-numbered exercises.   The optional solution guide gives more detailed solutions.   Each even-numbered exercise is usually very similar to the preceding odd-numbered exercise. 

If you have difficulty solving these exercises, get help as soon as possible either by seeing the instructor, a tutor or another student.  Students can discuss the exercises during the instructor’s office hours. Tutors are generally available for this course.  See the instructor if you do not know how to contact a tutor.



                        Quizzes                                                                        18%

                        Term tests                                                        54%    

                        Comprehensive Final                                        28%                


            The term test score will be taken from the best three of four scores.  If the grade on the final is higher than the grade of the lowest term, then the final grade will replace the lowest term score. Examples of previous quizzes and tests are available.




            The final grade will be based on the following scale


                        A          89 %  to 100 % C          65 %  to 76+ %

                        B          77 %  to 88+ %             D          50 %  to 64+ %




Chapter 20 Organic Chemistry

20.1 Fragrances and Odor, 20.2 Carbon: Why It Is Unique, 20.3 Hydrocarbons: Compounds Containing Only Carbon and Hydrocarbon, Drawing Hydrocarbon Structures, Stereo and Optical Isomerism, 20.4 Alkanes: Saturated Hydrocarbons, Naming Alkanes, 20.5 Alkenes and Alkynes, Naming Alkenes and Alkynes, Geometric (cis-trans) Isomerism in Alkenes, 20.6 Hydrocarbon Reactions, Reactions of Alkanes, Reactions of Alkenes and Alkynes, 20.7 Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Naming Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Reactions of Aromatic Compounds, 20.8 Functional Groups, 20.9 Alcohols, Naming Alcohols, About Alcohols, Alcohol Reactions, 20.10 Aldehydes and Ketones, Naming Aldehydes and Ketones, About Aldehydes and Ketones, Aldehyde and Ketone Reactions, 20.11 Carboxylic Acids and Esters, Naming Carboxylic Acids and Esters, About Carboxylic Acids and Esters, Carboxylic Acid and Ester Reactions, 20.12 Ethers, Naming Ethers ,About Ethers, 20.13 Amines, Amine Reactions, 20.14 Problems: 37, 39, 43, 49, 53, 55, 59, 61, 63, 67, 73, 77, 81, 85, 87, 93


Chapter 21 - Biochemistry


21.1 Insulin, 21.2 Lipids, Fatty Acids, Fats and Oils, Chemistry and Health, 21.3 Carbohydrates, Simple Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides and Disaccharides, Complex Carbohydrates, 21.4 Proteins and Amino Acids, Peptide Bonding Between Amino Acids, 21.5 Protein Structure, Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary Structure, 21.6 Nucleic Acids:, Basic Structure of Nucleic Acids, The Genetic Code, 21.7 DNA Replication, the Double Helix, Protein Synthesis, DNA Replication a, Protein Synthesis

Problems: 31, 33, 37, 41, 45, 55, 57, 61, 63, 69


Chapter 12 Solutions

12.1 Thirsty Solutions: Why You Should Not Drink Seawater, 12.2 Types of Solutions and Solubility,     Nature’s Tendency Toward Mixing: Entropy, The Effect of Intermolecular Forces, 12.3 Energetics of Solution Formation, Aqueous Solutions and Heats of Hydration, 12.4 Solution Equilibrium and Factors Affecting Solubility, The Temperature Dependence of the Solubility of Solids, Solubility of Gases in Water,12.5 Expressing Solution Concentration,  Molarity, Molality, Parts by Mass and Parts by Volume, Mole Fraction and Mole Percent, 12.6 Vapor Pressure of a Solution, Ionic Solutes and Vapor Pressure, Ideal and Non-Ideal Solutions, 12.7 Freezing Point Depression, Boiling Point Elevation, and Osmosis, Osmotic Pressure,  Colligative Properties of Ionic Solutions, 12.8 Colloids

Problems: 29, 31, 33, 35, 41, 49, 51, 53, 61, 63, 65, 67, 69, 75, 77, 79, 81


TEST 1 (Friday, February 8, tentative)


Chapter 13 - Chemical Kinetics

13.1 Catching Lizards, 13.2 Rate of a Chemical Reaction, Measuring Reaction Rates, 13.3 The Rate Law: The Effect of Concentration on Reaction Rate, Order of a Reaction, 13.4 The Integrated Rate Law: The Dependence of Concentration on Time, Zero-, First and Second-order Integrated Rate Laws, Half-Life of a Reaction, 13.5 The Effect of Temperature on Reaction Rate, Arrhenius Plots, Frequency Factor and the Activation Energy, 13.6 Reaction Mechanisms, Rate Laws for Elementary Steps, Rate-Determining Steps and Overall Reaction rate Laws, 13.7 Catalysis, Homogenous and Heterogenous Catalysis, Enzymes: Biological Catalysts

Problems: 25, 27, 33, 35, 37, 41, 43, 49, 55, 59, 63, 65, 73, 75, 85


Chapter 14 - Chemical Equilibrium

14.1 Fetal Hemoglobin and Equilibrium, 14.2 The Concept of Dynamic Equilibrium, 14.3 The Equilibrium Constant (K), Expressing Equilibrium Constants for Chemical Reactions, The Significance of the Equilibrium Constant, 14.4 Expressing the Equilibrium Constant in Terms of Pressure, 14.5 Heterogenous Equilibria: Reactions Involving Solids and Liquids, 14.6 Calculating the Equilibrium Constant From Measured Equilibrium Concentrations, 14.7 The Reaction Quotient: Predicting the Direction of Change, 14.8 Finding Equilibrium Concentrations, Simplifying Approximations in Working Equilibrium Problems, 14.9 Le Châtelier’s Principle: How a System at Equilibrium Responds to Disturbances, The Effect of a Concentration, Volume, Pressure or Temperature Change on Equilibrium

Problems: 21, 25, 27, 29, 31, 35, 39, 45, 47, 51, 61, 63


TEST 2  (Wednesday, March 7, tentative)





Chapter 15 - Acids and Bases

15.1 Heartburn, 15.2 The Nature of Acids and Bases, 15.3 Definitions of Acids and Bases, Arrhenius Definition, Brønsted-Lowry definition, 15.4 Acid Strength and the Acid Dissociation Constant (Ka),   Strong Acids, Weak Acids, The acid ionization constant (Ka),15.5 Autoionization of Water and pH,

The pH Scale, pOH and Other p Scales, 15.6 Finding the [H3O+] and pH of Strong and Weak Acid Solutions, Percent Ionization, 15.7 Base Solutions, Strong Bases, Weak Bases, Finding [OH-] and pH of Basic Solutions, 15.8 The Acid-Base Properties of Ions and Salts, Anions as Weak Bases, Cations as Weak Acids, Classifying Salt Solutions, 15.9 Polyprotic Acids, 15.10 Acid Strength and Molecular Structure, Binary Acids, Oxyacids, 15.11 Lewis Acids and Bases, 15.12 Acid rain

Problems: 33, 35, 37, 39, 41, 43, 45, 49, 51, 55, 57, 59, 61, 63, 67, 77, 81, 89, 91, 93, 95, 97, 99, 111, 113, 117, 119


Chapter 16 - Aqueous Ionic Equilibrium


16.1 The Danger of Antifreeze, 16.2 Buffers: Solutions That Resist pH Change, pH of a Buffer Solution, Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation, Buffers Containing a Base and Its Conjugate Acid, 16.3 Buffer Effectiveness: Buffer Capacity and Buffer Range, 16.4 Titrations and pH Curves, Indicators: pH-Dependent Colors, 16.5 Solubility Equilibria and the Solubility Product Constant, Ksp and Molar Solubility

Common Ion Effect, The Effect of pH on Solubility 16.6 Precipitation , Selective Precipitation, 16.8 Complex Ion Equilibria

Problems: 27, 29, 33, 39, 43, 55, 61, 63, 65, 75, 85, 87, 91, 95, 97


TEST 3 (Friday, April 4, tentative)


Chapter 17 - Free Energy and Thermodynamics


17.1 Nature’s Heat Tax: 17.2 Spontaneous and Nonspontaneous Processes, 17.3 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics, Entropy Change Associated with a Change in State, 17.4 Heat Transfer and Changes in the Entropy of the Surroundings, Temperature Dependence of ΔS

17.5 Gibbs Free Energy, Effect of ΔH, ΔS, and T on Spontaneity, 17.6 Entropy Changes in Chemical Reactions: Calculating ΔSrxn°, Standard Molar Entropies (S°) and the Third Law of Thermodynamics, Calculating the Standard Entropy Change (ΔSrxn°) for a Reaction, 17.7 Free Energy Changes in Chemical Reactions:  ΔGrxn° = ΔHrxn° - T ΔSrxn°, Calculating ΔGrxn°  using Tabulated Values, Determining ΔGrxn° for a Stepwise Reaction, 17.8 Free Energy Changers for Non-Standard States: ΔGrxn under Nonstandard Conditions, 17.9 Free Energy and Equilibrium: Relating ΔGrxn° to Keq, Temperature Dependence of the Equilibrium Constant

Problems: 27, 31, 33, 39, 43, 45, 47, 51, 57, 65, 67, 69


Chapter 18 - Electrochemistry


18.1 Pulling the Plug on the Power Grid, 18.2 Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Equations,18.3 Voltaic (or Galvanic) Cells: Generating Electricity from Spontaneous Chemical Reactions, 18.4 Standard Reduction Potentials, Predicting the Spontaneous Direction of an Oxidation-Reduction Reaction, Predicting Whether a Metal Will Dissolve in Acid ,18.5 Cell Potential, Free Energy, and the Equilibrium Constant, Relationship Between ΔGo,  Eo and K, 18.6 Cell Potential and Concentration, Nernst Equation, 18.7 Batteries: Commercial Batteries, Fuel Cells,18.8 Electrolysis: Driving Non-spontaneous Chemical Reactions with Electricity, Stoichiometry of Electrolysis, 18.9 Corrosion: Preventing Corrosion

Problems: 37, 41, 53, 57, 59, 61, 63, 65, 67, 73, 77, 85, 87, 99, 101


TEST 4 – Friday,May 2


COMPREHENSIVE FINAL – Wednesday, May 6, 2008, 12 – 2 PM