APA Formatting: (http://www.apa.org/students)

One-inch margins at the top, bottom, right and left sides are now required by APA. 

Double spacing is required throughout the paper. Double-space after every line of the title, headings, quotations, references, etc. Do not use single or one-and-a-half spacing. If you wish to use single-spacing for quotations of verse and drama because it more nearly approximates what the poet and dramatist would want, consult with your instructor before doing so.

Each page is numbered consecutively, including title page and reference page. Type the numbers in the upper right-hand corner using Arabic numerals. Arrange the pages of the manuscript as follows:

·         Title page numbered 1.

·         Text (start on a new page numbered 2).

·         Pages with figures are not numbered.

A short title is used throughout the paper including the title page. The short title is a single two or three-word derivation of the title of the paper. For example, if the title of your paper were Understanding Patterns of Byzantine Intrique, your Short Title could be Byzantine Intrigue). The Short Title is typed one inch below the top of the page flush with the right-hand margin (of one inch); the numeral one also appears on the title page. The Short Title should not be confused with the Running Head which is typed flush left at the top of the title page (but below the manuscript page header) and in all uppercase letters. The Running Head is usually not necessary for high school and college papers unless specifically required by individual instructors. However, it may well be required on documents being prepared for actual publication.

The title itself is typed in uppercase and lowercase letters, centered on the page. If the title requires more than one line, double-space between all the lines.

Within the text, paragraphs are indented five to seven spaces (which translates into about a half-inch indent on word-processors). The only exceptions to this requirement are the abstract, block quotations, titles and headings, entries in the reference list, table titles and notes (if any), and figure captions, which require no indents.

All typing is done flush-left, not right justified nor full justified. In other words, leave the right margin uneven or "ragged right." Do not break (hyphenate) words at the ends of lines. Type a line short or just beyond the right-hand margin rather than break a word at the end of a line.

The title page should have the title of the paper centered on the page. The Short Title and page number appear at the top right of the title page. The student's name appears one double-space below the title. The institutional affiliation (name of the college or high-school for which the paper has been written) appears one double-space below student name. (If there is no institutional affiliation, the city and state or city and country of the author should be identified instead.)

Outdoor Experiences  1




Impact of Early-life Outdoor Experiences on an

Individual’s Environmental Attitudes



G. Scott Place, Ph.D.

Associate Professor of Recreation

Page two is the beginning of the body of the paper. The title of the paper appears (centered) one double-space below the Short Title. The first line of the body of the paper appears one double-space below the title.


Probably three levels of headings will suffice for most college and high-school papers. (Notice the double-spacing within the headings.)

The First Level, Centered with

Uppercase and Lowercase Typing

Second Level, Flush-Left, italicized Headings

    Third level, indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph

heading ending with a period.


·           The APA now calls for one space to appear after all punctuation marks


CAPITALIZATION (from: http://www.wooster.edu/psychology/apa-crib.html#Intext)

·           Capitalize formal names of tests (Stroop Color-Word Interference Test).

·           Capitalize major words and all other words of four letters or more, in headings, titles, and subtitles outside reference lists, for example, "A Study of No-Win Strategies."

·           Capitalize names of conditions, groups, effects, and variables only when definite. (Group A was the control group; an Age x Weight interaction showed lower weight with age.)

·           Capitalize the first word after a comma or colon if, and only if, it begins a complete sentence. For example, "This is a complete sentence, so it is capitalized." As a counter example, "no capitalization here."

·           Capitalize specific course and department titles (GSU Department of Psychology, Psych 150).

·           Do not capitalize generic names of tests (Stroop color test). "Stroop" is a name, so it remains capitalized.

·           Capitalize nouns before numbers, but not before variables (Trial 2, trial x).

·           Do not capitalize names of laws, theories, and hypotheses (the law of effect).

·           Do not capitalize when referring to generalities (any department, any introductory course).


NUMBERS (from: http://www.wooster.edu/psychology/apa-crib.html#Intext)


Extended quotations


IN-TEXT REFERENCES (from: http://www.wooster.edu/psychology/apa-crib.html#Intext)

·           Use the author-date format to cite references in text. For example: as Smith (1990) points out, a recent study (Smith, 1990) shows...

·           For two-author citations, spell out both authors on all occurrences.

·           For multiple-author citations (up to five authors) name all authors the first time, then use et al., so the first time it is Smith, Jones, Pearson and Sherwin (1990), but the second time it is Smith et al., with a period after "al" but no underlining.

·           The first time an "et al." reference is used in a paragraph, give the year, thereafter (if the citation is repeated in the paragraph) omit the year.

·           For six or more authors, use et al. the first time and give the full citation in references.

·           Include page reference after the year, outside quotes but inside the comma, for example: The author stated, "The effect disappeared within minutes" (Lopez, 1993, p. 311) , but she did not say which effect. Another example would be: Lopez found that "the effect disappeared within minutes" (p. 311). Notice also that the sentence is capitalized only if presented after a comma, as a complete sentence.

·           If two or more multiple-author references which shorten to the same "et al." form, making it ambiguous, give as many author names as necessary to make them distinct, before et al. For example: (Smith, Jones, et al., 1991) to distinguish it from (Smith, Burke, et al., 1991).

·           Join names in a multiple-author citation with and (in text) or an ampersand (&) in reference lists and parenthetical comments. For example: As Smith and Sarason (1990) point out, the same argument was made by in an earlier study (Smith & Sarason, 1990).

·           If a group is readily identified by its initials, spell it out only the first time. For example, "As reported in a government study (National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 1991), blah blah..." and thereafter, "The previously cited study (NIMH, 1991) found that...

·           If the author is unknown or unspecified, use the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title), for example: ("Study Finds," 1992).

·           If citing multiple works by the same author at the same time, arrange dates in order. In general, use letters after years to distinguish multiple publications by the same author in the same year. For example: Several studies (Johnson, 1988, 1990a, 1990b, 1995 in press-a, 1995 in press-b) showed the same thing.

·           For old works cite the translation or the original and modern copyright dates if both are known, for example: (Aristotle, trans. 1931) or (James, 1890/1983).

·           Always give page numbers for quotations, for example: (Cheek & Buss, 1981, p. 332) or (Shimamura, 1989, chap. 3, p. 5).

·           For e-mail and other "unrecoverable data" use personal communication, for example: (V.-G. Nguyen, personal communication, September 28, 1993). These do not appear in the reference list.



The reference list begins on a new page. Type the word References (Reference in the case of only one) centered at the top of the page. Double-space all reference entries. Indent the first line of each entry; the second and succeeding lines in references should be typed flush to the left-hand margin. It is understood that when the document is published in a journal, references will appear in a hanging-indent format; some institutions may require the hanging-indent format for theses and dissertations.














Albrecht, D., Bultena, G., Hoiberg, E., & Nowak, P. (1982). The new environmental paradigm scale. The Journal of Environmental Education, 13 (3), 39-43.

Arcury, T. A., Johnson, T. P., & Scollay, S. J. (1986). Ecological worldview and environmental knowledge: The “new environmental paradigm”. Journal of Environmental Education, 17 (4), 35-40.

Ajzen, I. & Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding Attitudes and Predicting Social Behavior. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Online periodical: from www.apa.org

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author,  C. C. (2000). Title of article. Title of        Periodical, xx, xxxxxx. Retrieved month day, year, from source.

Online document:

Author, A. A. (2000). Title of work.  Retrieved month day, year, from source

Internet articles based on a print source

VandenBos, G., Knapp, S., & Doe, J. (2001). Role of reference element in the selection of resources by psychology undergraduates [Electronic version]. Journal of Bibliographic Research, 5, 117-123.

 If you are referencing an online article that you have reason to believe has been changed (e.g., the format differs from the print version or page numbers are not indicated) or that includes additional data or commentaries, you will need to add the date you retrieved the document and the URL.

VandenBos, G., Knapp, S., & Doe, J. (2001). Role of reference elements in the selection of resources by psychology undergraduates. Journal of Bibliographic Research, 5, 117-123. Retrieved October 13, 2001, from http://jbr.org/articles.html

Article in an Internet-only journal

Fredrickson, B. L. (2000, March 7). Cultivating positive emotions to optimize health and well-being. Prevention & Treatment, 3, Article 0001a. Retrieved November 20, 2000, from http://journals.apa.org/prevention/volume3/pre0030001a.html

Article in an Internet-only newsletter

Glueckauf, R. L., Whitton, J., Baxter, J., Kain, J., Vogelgesang, S., Hudson, M., et al. (1998, July). Videocounseling for families of rural teens with epilepsy -- Project update. Telehealth News,2(2). Retrieved from http://www.telehealth.net/subscribe/newslettr4a.html1

Stand-alone document, no author identified, no date

GVU's 8th WWW user survey. (n.d.). Retrieved August 8, 2000, from http://www.cc.gatech.edu/gvu/usersurveys/survey1997-10/


Document available on university program or department Web site

Chou, L., McClintock, R., Moretti, F., Nix, D. H. (1993). Technology and education: New wine in new bottles: Choosing pasts and imagining educational futures. Retrieved August 24, 2000, from Columbia University, Institute for Learning Technologies Web site: http://www.ilt.columbia.edu/publications/papers/newwine1.html

Electronic copy of a journal article, three to five authors, retrieved from database


Borman, W. C., Hanson, M. A., Oppler, S. H., Pulakos, E. D., & White, L. A. (1993). Role of early supervisory experience in supervisor performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 443-449. Retrieved October 23, 2000, from PsycARTICLES database.


·           ELECTRONIC BASED: FOR SPECIFIC EXAMPLES GO TO: http://www.apastyle.org/elecref.html

o   Online periodical:  Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (2000). Title of article. Title of Periodical, xx, xxxxxx. Retrieved month day, year, from source.

o   Online document: Author, A. A. (2000). Title of work. Retrieved month day, year, from source.





Table 2

Gender and age of respondents.

Gender & Age                                                Total                Anthropocentric          Eco-centric

Male                                                    222                              20                         202

Female                                                 315                                7                         308

Ages: 18-29                                         523                              26                         497

Ages: 30-39                                             6                                                               6

Ages: 40-49                                             6                                                               6


Table 17

Comparison of variables used by previous research, this research, and the suggested Direct Experience category.

Suggested Categories

Place Research

Tanner (1980)

Palmer (1993)

Peterson & Hungerford (1981)

Chawla (1999)

Direct Experiences

A.* OE alone,

C. * OE alone, and M.* OE alone

Outdoors (78%)**, Solitude (7%), Habitat (being outdoors) (58%)

Outdoors (91%)**

Participation in OE (91%)**, Time spent in outdoors as youth (82%)

OE (77%)**


Negative OE


Habitat alteration (24%)

Disasters & Negative issues (18%)


Negative Experience (23%),

Pollution & Radiation (16%)




Keeping pets & animals (6%)



* A=Appreciative, C=Consumptive, M=Mechanized, OE=Outdoor Experience

** Percentage of those indicating this as an influential factor in previous research.